Varicose veins are the scourge of modern humanity. But often the treatment of varicose veins, whose scheme is selected individually, ends successfully. Sometimes the issue is just therapy and medication, but sometimes the situation is saved only with surgery. What are the ways to get rid of this nasty and serious illness?
Varicose veins - basic information
Varicose veins are a pathological condition characterized by damage to the venous vessels.
There are special valves in the veins, which act as a kind of closure, preventing the blood from flowing downwards (the venous blood in the legs flows upwards).
Failure of the valve system leads to blood reflux and congestion.As a result of these processes, the veins weaken, stretch and deform, unable to cope with the rise in blood pressure.
The result of this is a symptom familiar to many - protruding veins on the skin surface, which indicates the dynamic development of the pathology.
All the insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that in the early stages it manifests itself as tiredness and heaviness in the usual legs.
Therefore, many are in no hurry to go to the doctor and start to sound the alarm when blue threads are visible on the skin, impairing the appearance of the legs.
Learn more about the symptoms of the onset of varicose veins here.
The reasons for the development of this pathology are very diverse.This includes congenital abnormalities of the vascular system and some triggering factors: sedentary lifestyle, overweight, uncomfortable shoes, professional activities associated with prolonged standing.
The treatment of the disease is always carried out comprehensively.The required scheme is selected by an expert based on the stage of development of the disease and the individual characteristics of the organism.
Which doctor treats the veins?
Varicose veins are not only dilated veins, but also serious valve dysfunctions and a failure in blood circulation, which leads to serious complications throughout the body. And if the first symptoms appear - swollen veins, muscle cramps, constant weight on your legs - you should make an appointment with a phlebologist immediately.
Based on the severity of the case, the causes of the disease and the state of health, the doctor will select the most appropriate treatment from the options available today.
The main reasons that lead to the appearance of varicose veins are: heredity, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary or standing work, hormonal imbalance in the body. According to statistics, 40% of adult women and 20% of men show signs of varicose veins.
A phlebologist is committed to the diagnosis of the disease, you should contact himif these symptoms appear:
- Leg weight that gets worse at the end of the day.
- Rapid leg fatigue during long walks.
- Pain in the legs.
- The appearance of a fine vascular mesh on the legs.
- Swelling of the legs.
- Seizures that increase in intensity at night.
- Itching of the skin of the lower extremities.
Graduallydevelopsatrophy of the muscle fibers of the superficial veins, the blood vessels elongate, expand, become tortuous, appear in them protruding above the surface of the skin. The skin over the enlarged veins becomes bluish-red, dry and hot, ulcers appear due to tissue malnutrition.
Due to dystrophic changes in the subcutaneous fat layer, lipodermatosclerosis can develop - a dangerous complication of varicose veins in the legs, whose treatment with conservative methods may not be successful.
To avoid the serious consequences of varicose veins, phlebologists advise theirpatients to start treatment at the right timewhen the first signs of the disease appear.
Sclerosis is highly effective, which consists of injecting a special sclerosing substance into the vessels using a syringe with the thinnest needle. The venous lumens are tightened, the edges of the ruptures are welded, thus stopping the infiltration of blood out of the vessels. The substance itself, having fulfilled its function, is absorbed.
This method removes all stains and gives an excellent cosmetic result. However, after the procedure, it is necessary to maintain the condition of the veins with additional therapy and wear compression clothing.
Almost 10 years ago, a laser, or rather, intravenous laser coagulation, began to be used very successfully in medicine to combat varicose veins. Treat veins as follows:
- With local anesthesia, a small puncture is made in the vein.
- An optical fiber is inserted into the resulting hole.
- The laser acts on the damaged areas, sealing the damage.
- Then, a new tissue appears in the sealed location.
The operation does not take place “blindly” - the process is monitored by an ultrasound machine, so there is virtually no risk of failure. In addition, the absence of significant incisions excludes painful sensations, the formation of bleeding and a violation of adjacent tissues.
After the procedure, you should bandage the affected areas or wear compression stockings and tights.
Radio frequency ablation is often used, and the high frequency current is successfully treating varicose veins. It happens as follows:
- The vein is perforated.
- A catheter is inserted into the orifice.
- Radiation enters the vessel through it.
- The conductor acts at the molecular level, changing the protein molecules of the damaged vein.
The method allows you to quickly treat all venous nodules and no special post-operative therapy is needed.
Methods to treat varicose veins
There are two of them: conservative and surgical. The patient is faced with an urgent question: how to treat varicose veins in the legs without surgery. When choosing a method, the doctor takes into account the signs, the stage of the disease, the presence of complications, concomitant diseases, the patient's age. Non-surgical methods to remove varicose veins from the lower extremities give good results only when the symptoms of the pathology are still weakly expressed.
To stop the degradation of the affected vessels, help:
- drug therapy; compression treatment
- physiotherapy exercises;
- physiotherapy; massage
- traditional medicine prescriptions;
Phlebologists try to choose exclusively non-medicated treatments for lower limb varicose veins for patients during pregnancy. First of all, they are compression underwear, gymnastic exercises, physiotherapy, massage, diet. If drugs are still needed, only drugs for external use are prescribed.
The debate continues on whether hirudotherapy helps with varicose veins. The hirudin produced by leeches, penetrating the venous system of the lower extremities, dilutes the thickened blood. However, today there are many modern medicines with the same property. In addition, there are risk factors for the use of leeches - vascular infection, allergic reactions.
If necessary, the treatment of varicose veins is carried out by radical methods. This:
- ozone therapy; cryotherapy;
- laser coagulation;
- surgical intervention.
Sclerotherapy - injection into a diseased vein of a medicine that "glues" the dilated vessel. It stops pumping blood and gradually dissolves. The maximum efficacy of sclerotherapy is achieved at an early stage of the pathology. A similar method is ozone therapy: a portion of this gas is injected with a syringe into the lumen of small veins, and the vessels also "stick together".
Cold is used during cryotherapy procedures. During electrocoagulation, a high frequency current is supplied to the vessels through a very thin electrode. Laser treatment of varicose veins is also a modern and effective method, especially when used in combination with conservative methods. At the same time, the cosmetic result is high: after a few weeks, the patient has no more scars or scars.
However, surgical removal is the most effective treatment that allows radically removing varicose veins when drug therapy does not lead to the desired result. Diseased vessels are removed through local subcutaneous incisions. After surgery, the leg is well bandaged and after three to four hours the patient can walk.
Principles of medical treatment of varicose veins
Effective treatment of varicose veins is only possible if the selected drugs prevent the mechanisms of pathological development, destruction of vascular walls and valves.
The main tasks of drug treatment for varicose veins are:
- restoration of blood circulation;
- strengthening of venous walls;
- increased vascular tone;
- decreasing blood viscosity;
- prevention of blood clots;
- normalization of the valve system;
- elimination of inflammatory processes;
- normalization of blood circulation in capillaries.
Medicines are indispensable in the complex treatment of the disease.
They are also widely used for preventive purposes, which is especially important for people at risk of developing pathology.
So far, there are a large number of drugs for the treatment of varicose veins in the legs and all differ in composition and mechanism of action.
See a doctor
Varicose veins are a serious diseasewhich, if treated incorrectly or not, can pose a threat to various complications that are dangerous to human health and life.
Help. Vital vessel thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers - this is not a complete list of complications of varicose veins that pose a threat to humans.
In that sense, you shouldn't even try to self-medicate.
Experiments at home with drug selection can make the situation worse or ineffective.
In any case, this is time, health and money lost.
Therefore, you should contact a phlebologist. Only a specialist will be able to correctly select medications and build a treatment regimen in order to obtain the maximum benefit for the patient.
What drugs are used
The complex treatment of varicose veins consists of using several groups of drugs at the same time:
In addition, to increase the therapeutic effect,means of systemic and local influence are used.
Creams, gels, ointmentsare used as topical preparations. When choosing medications for varicose veins and thrombophlebitis, it should be kept in mind that it is theointment agent that is characterized by the highest content of the active ingredient.
Important!A common contraindication for all local remedies is violation of the integrity of the skin.
As a rule, these drugs are applied several times a day and the product should be rubbed with light movements from the bottom up.
Drug groups and their effects
In venous varices, medicinal substances are classified according to the type of action inthree main groups:
- venotonic or phlebotropic agents;
- blood thinning agents (anticoagulants) and drugs that inhibit platelet adhesion (antiplatelet agents); anti-inflammatory
Research and medical practice have proven the effectiveness of phlebotonics developed based on natural flavonoids- diosmin and hesperida. These substances not only protect the cells in the veins, but stimulate the flow of lymph and stabilize the work of the capillaries. The simultaneous administration of combined drugs in which both flavonoids are present is especially effective.
Most of the time,phlebotropic agents are administered for 2 to 3 months in courses. It is important that the reception coincides with the hot season, when the load on the vessels increases due to the high air temperature and the use of large volumes of water. If varicose veins are accompanied by chronic venous insufficiency, phlebotonics are constantly administered at half the dose.
A patient diagnosed with varicose veinsshould receive systematic treatment from the beginningto prevent the disease from developing and reduce the likelihood of complications.
The second task is solved by drugs that thin the blood (anticoagulants) and improve its fluidity properties, preventing the formation of thrombotic clots (antiplatelet agents).
The formation of blood clots, their separation from the vascular wall and movement along the venous bed lead to the overlapping of the vessels of the heart, lungs and human brain. As a result, the likelihood of developing a heart attack, pulmonary embolism and ischemic stroke is very high.
Anti-aggregates are not a cure for varicose veins, but are used as a means of preventing their serious complications- thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. We can say that these drugs save the patient's life and minimize the threat of disability.
The removal of injured veins from the lower limbs or their parts is performed through incisions or punctures. The elimination of diseased vessels in the clinic is necessary if:
- veins in the legs are pathologically enlarged;
- the skin is affected; trophic ulcers
- thrombophlebitis worsened.
Surgical treatment of varicose veins in the legs is contraindicated:
- for severe hypertension, coronary artery disease, infectious diseases, eczema;
- if the patient has reached old age;
- during pregnancy (more than 5 months).
In addition to medical and surgical treatment, additional therapy is of considerable importance, including a series of measures to bring veins back to normal:
- The wrap has a relaxing effect, removes the feeling of heaviness in the legs. When acquiring the necessary resources, it is worth remembering that hot wraps for varicose veins are contraindicated.
- Foot baths are another way to help relieve foot stress. Using medicinal herbs and oils, you can strengthen blood vessels, get rid of swelling and redness. But the effect will only be with the daily use of the method.
- Contrast shower. 10 seconds of cold bath and 30 seconds of warm water (it's best to avoid hot water) for 5-7 minutes every morning to help keep your veins in good shape. For these purposes, you can use the Alekseev or Charcot shower.
Phlebologists often include physiotherapy in complex treatments - laser, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis.
They do not cause discomfort and pain, they are inexpensive and quite effective. In addition, treatment takes place under the supervision of medical professionals. The main condition is regular visits to the office.
Physiotherapy has a beneficial effect on the condition of the venous walls, muscle tissue and valve activity.
Compression therapy is an important component not only of treatment, but also of prevention and the postoperative period. The use of bandages will prevent stagnation processes, support damaged vessels and halt the progression of the disease.
Applying bandages requires some knowledge and dexterity, as excessive pulling can lead to deterioration and weak bandages will not produce the desired effect. Therefore, for the correct use of dressings, it is worth consulting a doctor.
Massage for varicose veins is not acceptable in all cases, so only a doctor can tell if it is worth using in a specific case or not. If the method is chosen correctly, after the first session you can feel the result. This method can lead to an improvement in blood microcirculation, relieving the main symptoms of the disease, including external ones.
The more advanced the disease, the more difficult it is to fight it, and sometimes patients arrive too late and there is only one way out - phlebectomy. To prevent this from happening, complications should not be expected, but qualified assistance in a timely manner.
Phlebologists in the treatment of varicose veins strive to dispense with traumatic operations that are not necessary in the early stages of the disease. For example, this is typical of reticular varicose veins, the manifestation of which is limited only by blue venous networks. Medicines help to improve the condition of valves and vessel walls. Men, like women, should wear compression stockings. The pathology cannot be completely cured. However, conservative methods prevent the development of varicose veins and protect against complications.
Exercise therapy specialists know how to remove veins from your legs by performing physical therapy exercises. This is possible as long as the exercise, which improves blood flow in the legs, is done systematically. For example:
- In the standing position, the heels of the feet are lifted vigorously alternately.
- In the same standing position, they slowly rise on tiptoe and just as slowly descend.
- Sitting on a chair, roll a small ball on the floor with your feet forward and back.
Wearing special underwear
Doctors recommend combining medical treatment of varicose veins with the use of compression underwear - these are products made from a special type of mesh that presses (compression) on the veins. The degree of pressure of the laundry on the vessel walls can be adjusted by purchasing products with different degrees of compression.
There are four degrees of compression in total: the first is used for prevention, the rest for treatment. With the varicose veins of the lower extremities, tights, tights, leggings and leggings are used, the doctor selects the necessary degree of compression.
Compression underwear creates a dense crushing structure on the legs, thanks to that, these effects develop:
- Weakened leg muscles are supported.
- The blood vessel walls are compressed, preventing them from stretching.
- Lymphatic flow and blood circulation are stimulated.
- Stagnation is eliminated.
- The function of the venous valves is normalized.
- The load on the dilated veins is reduced.
- Thrombophlebitis is prevented.
Compression stockings are mandatory after varicose vein surgery. Underwear helps prevent disease recurrence, creates additional support for the body during the rehabilitation period.
Compression sclerotherapy is a modern method of treating varicose veins, which consists of the injection of drugs into the affected veins. As a result, sclerosing (bonding) of the venous walls occurs, the blood flow at the injection site is interrupted and the vein gradually dissolves or leaves behind an almost imperceptible filament that does not bother the patient.
In most cases, sclerotherapy is performed when the spider veins appear, when the varicose veins are at an early stage. With the progressive development of varicose veins in the legs, treatment with sclerotherapy is performed after analyzing the condition of the venous valves and vascular walls, the functional characteristics of the patient's circulatory system.
If a decision is made to conduct compression sclerotherapy, the patient is subjected to a blood clotting test and an ultrasound examination of the veins. When performing sclerotherapy, the patient does not experience painful sensations, as the medication is injected into the vein through a thinner needle. After the procedure is finished, a sterile dressing is applied to the medication administration site, the patient puts on a compressive bandage. In the first week after sclerotherapy, the compression stocking should be worn 24 hours a day and then removed at night.
Positive results from sclerotherapy:
- Effective blood flow restoration.
- Exclusion of blood clots in the damaged vein.
- Prevention of trophic diseases in the tissues.
- Elimination of clinical symptoms of varicose veins: edema, convulsions, pain.
- Excellent cosmetic effect due to the complete disappearance of dilated veins.
For a more effective treatment of varicose veins in the legs, it is important to organize nutrition properly. Berries, apples, citrus fruits, which contain flavonoids, antioxidants, rutin, help to improve the condition of blood vessels. Dilution of the blood provides a daily intake of a sufficient amount of liquid (1, 5-2 liters). The diet with varicose veins on the legs is incompatible with fatty, fried foods, hot spices, alcohol.
The treatment of varicose veins with home remedies at home in the summer is especially effective. The following recipes are popular:
- 15-20 minute leg compresses with tomato paste. It has a high content of lycopene, which actively strengthens blood vessels and prevents the formation of blood clots. At the same time, it is useful to eat fresh tomatoes daily.
- Infusion of sweet clover, an essential herb for varicose veins: art. me. the raw materials are prepared with two glasses of boiling water, kept until cool and filtered. They drink half a glass 3 times a day, the rest of the volume is used as lotions.
What not to do
When being diagnosed with varicose veins, you should pay attention to lifestyle, diet and sports.Not allowed:
- active physical activity, running, jumping (yoga classes are allowed);
- prolonged standing or sitting position;
- use of all medications without consulting a phlebologist;
- long flights with a forced immobile position of the legs. In addition, at high altitudes, there is a marked thickening of the blood, which leads to the formation of blood clots;
- taking hot baths, visiting a sauna;
- Suction cups and honey massage are strictly prohibited, only the manual type of medical massage is allowed.
Trophic ulcersis a form of complication of varicose veins, which manifests itself in the development and deepening of a persistent ulcer that does not heal. Typically, a separate painful ulcer develops in the lower leg, within which "crying" is often seen in the form of secretion of serous blood fluid covering the affected tissues.
Urgent medical care
Immediate medical attention is required if any of the following symptoms occur:
- Increased pain in the affected limb, inability to get out of bed or take a few steps;
- The skin on the leg is warm, swollen and firm to the touch.
- The color of the skin changes from pale red to bluish or bluish;
- Sudden shortness of breath, shortness of breath, sweating and severe weakness;
- Bleeding from the affected skin or varicose veins.
Medicines needed for varicose veins in the lower extremities should be included in the complex treatment regimen.Even after surgery, several courses of phlebotonic and antiplatelet drugs will be neededto prevent possible trophic disorders, inflammation and complications associated with the disease.
Many multicomponent drugs against varicose veins work in combination, have several functions. The effectiveness of these drugs is more pronounced.It is ideal to apply treatment with courses in the correct dosage, calculated by the phlebologist, in combination with compression therapy, yoga classes, swimming in the pool, herbal medicine.
The complex treatment of varicose veins in the lower limbs involves the use of various therapeutic techniques.
Along with medicines, physiotherapy, special exercises, massages, etc. are prescribed.